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Abraham Joshua Heschel was born in as the youngest of six children of Moshe Mordechai and Reizel Perlow. He was descended from preeminent European rabbis on both sides of his family. His paternal greatgreatgrandfather and namesake was Rebbe Avraham Yehoshua Heshel of Apt in presentday Poland. His mother was also a descendant of Avraham Yehoshua Heshel and other Hasidic dynasties. His siblings were Sarah Dvora Miriam Esther Sima Gittel and Jacob. Their father Moshe died of influenza in when Abraham was nine.After a traditional yeshiva education and studying for Orthodox rabbinical ordination semicha Heschel pursued his doctorate at the University of Berlin and a liberal rabbinic ordination at the Hochschule für die Wissenschaft des Judentums. There he studied under some of the finest Jewish educators of the time: Chanoch Albeck Ismar Elbogen Julius Guttmann and Leo Baeck. His mentor in Berlin was David Koigen. Heschel later taught Talmud at the Hochschule. He joined a Yiddish poetry group Jung Vilna and in published a volume of Yiddish poems Der Shem Hamefoyrosh: Mentsch dedicated to his father.In late October when Heschel was living in a rented room in the home of a Jewish family in Frankfurt he was arrested by the Gestapo and deported to Poland. He spent ten months lecturing on Jewish philosophy and Torah at Warsaws Institute for Jewish Studies. Six weeks before the German invasion of Poland Heschel left Warsaw for London with the help of Julian Morgenstern president of Hebrew Union College who had been working to obtain visas for Jewish scholars in Europe.Heschels sister Esther was killed in a German bombing. His mother was murdered by the Nazis and two other sisters Gittel and Devorah died in Nazi concentration camps. He never returned to Germany Austria or Poland. He once wrote If I should go to Poland or Germany every stone every tree would remind me of contempt hatred murder of children killed of mothers burned alive of human beings asphyxiated


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Heschel arrived in New York City in March . He served on the faculty of Hebrew Union College HUC the main seminary of Reform Judaism in Cincinnati for five years. In he took a position at the Jewish Theological Seminary of America JTS in New York City the main seminary of Conservative Judaism. He served as professor of Jewish ethics and Mysticism until his death in .Hasidic philosophy begins with the teachings of Rabbi Yisroel ben Eliezer known as the Baal Shem Tov and his successors most notably Rabbi Dov Ber the Maggid of Mezeritch and his students. These teachings consist of new interpretations of Judaism but are especially built upon the Jewish mystical tradition the Kabbalah. While the Jewish mystical tradition had long been reserved for a scholarly elite Hasidic teachings are unique in their popular access being aimed at the masses. Hasidism is thought to be a union of three different currents in Judaism Jewish law or halacha; Jewish legend and saying the aggadah; and Jewish mysticism the Kabbalah. Hasidic teachings often termed exegesis are seen as having a similar method to that of the Midrash the rabbinic homiletic literature. Hasidic exegesis differs from Kabbalistic schools as it focuses somewhat less on the sefirot and partzufim and more on binary types of oppositions e.g. body and soul. On the other hand Louis Jacobs stated that Hasidic teachings should not be described as exegesis as during the course of interpretation texts are taken completely out of context to yield desired conclusions grammar and syntax are ignored and ideas are read into the texts that they cannot possibly mean.


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Scattering also occurs even more strongly in clouds. Individual water droplets exposed to white light will create a set of colored rings. If a cloud is thick enough scattering from multiple water droplets will wash out the set of colored rings and create a washed-out white color.clarification needed The term night sky refers to the sky as seen at night. The term is usually associated with skygazing and astronomy with reference to views of celestial bodies such as stars the Moon and planets that become visible on a clear night after the Sun has set. Natural light sources in a night sky include moonlight starlight and airglow depending on location and timing. The fact that the sky is not completely dark at night can be easily observed. Were the sky in the absence of moon and city lights absolutely dark one would not be able to see the silhouette of an object against the sky.The night sky and studies of it have a historical place in both ancient and modern cultures. In the past for instance farmers have used the state of the night sky as a calendar to determine when to plant crops. The ancient belief in astrology is generally based on the belief that relationships between heavenly bodies influence or convey information about events on Earth. The scientific study of the night sky and bodies observed within it meanwhile takes place in the science of astronomy.Within visible-light astronomy the visibility of celestial objects in the night sky is affected by light pollution. The presence of the Moon in the night sky has historically hindered astronomical observation by increasing the amount of ambient lighting. With the advent of artificial light sources however light pollution has been a growing problem for viewing the night sky. Special filters and modifications to light fixtures can help to alleviate this problem but for the best views both professional and amateur optical astronomers seek viewing sites located far from major urban areas.


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distinct nuclei and other membrane-enclosed structures that is not an animal plant or fungus. The protists do not form a natural group or clade by having a characteristic common origin but like algae or invertebrates they are often grouped together for convenience. In some systems of biological classification such as the popular five-kingdom scheme proposed by Robert Whittaker in the protists make up a kingdom called Protista composed of organisms which are unicellular or unicellular-colonial and which form no tissues. their relatively simple levels of organization protists do not necessarily have much in common. When used the term is now considered to mean similar-appearing but diverse taxa biological groups that are not related through an exclusive common ancestor and have different life cycles trophic levels modes of locomotion and cellular structures. In the classification system of Lynn Margulis the term protist is reserved for microscopic organisms while the more inclusive term Protoctista is applied to a biological kingdom which includes certain large multicellular eukaryotes such as kelp red algae and slime molds. Others use the term protist more broadly to encompass both microbial eukaryotes and macroscopic organisms that do not fit into the other traditional kingdomsn cladistic systems classifications based on common ancestry there are no equivalents to the taxa Protista or Protoctista both terms referring to a paraphyletic group which spans the entire eukaryotic tree of life. In cladistic classification the contents of Protista are distributed among various supergroups SAR such as amoebas protozoa and some algae Archaeplastida such as land plants and some algae Excavata which are a group of unicellular organisms Opisthokonta such as animals and fungi etc. and Protista Protoctista and Protozoa are considered obsolete. However the term protist continues to be used informally as a catch-all term for eukaryotic microorganisms. For example the phrase protist pathogen may be used to denote any disease-causing microbe which is not bacteria virus viroid or metazoa


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Ghost towns may result when the single activity or resource that created a boomtown e.g. nearby mine mill or resort is depleted or the resource economy undergoes a bust e.g. catastrophic resource price collapse. Boomtowns can often decrease in size as fast as they initially grew. Sometimes all or nearly the entire population can desert the town resulting in a ghost town.The dismantling of a boomtown can often occur on a planned basis. Mining companies nowadays will create a temporary community to service a mine site building all the accommodation shops and services required and then remove them once the resource has been extracted. Modular buildings can be used to facilitate the process. A gold rush would often bring intensive but shortlived economic activity to a remote village only to leave a ghost town once the resource was depleted.In some cases multiple factors may remove the economic basis for a community some former mining towns on U.S. Route suffered both mine closures when the resources were depleted and loss of highway traffic as US was diverted away from places like Oatman Arizona onto a more direct path.In other cases the reason for abandonment can arise from a towns intended economic function shifting to another nearby place. This happened to Collingwood Queensland in Outback Australia when nearby Winton outperformed Collingwood as a regional centre for the livestockraising industry. The railway reached Winton in 1899 linking it with the rest of Queensland and Collingwood was a ghost town by the following year.The Middle East has many ghost towns that were created when the shifting of politics or the fall of empires caused capital cities to be socially or economically unviable such as Ctesiphon.The rise of condominium investment caused for real estate bubbles also leads to a ghost town as real estate prices rise and affordable housing becomes less available. Such examples include China and Canada where housing is often used as an investment rather than for habitation.River rerouting is another factor one example being the towns along the Aral Sea.Ghost towns may be created when land is expropriated by a government and residents are required to relocate. One example is the village of Tyneham in Dorset England acquired during World War II to build an artillery range.A similar situation occurred in the U.S.


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