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After World War II, crime rates increased in the United States, p vkc eaking from the 1970s to the early 190s. s4vkc Violent crime nearly vkc quadrupled between 1960 and its peak in 1991. Property crime more than doubled over the same vkc period. Since the 1990s, however, crime in the vkc United States has declined vkc steeply. Severa l theories have been pro s4vkc posed to explain this decline:The number of police officers increased considera s4vkc bly in the 1990s.[8]On September 16, 1994, vkc President Bill Clinton signed the Violent Crime Control and Law Enforcement Act into law. Under the act, over $30 billion in federal aid was spent over a six-year period to improve state and local law e vkc nforcement, prisons and crime prevention programs.[9] Proponents of th vkc e law, includin g the President, to s4vkc uted it as a lead contrib s4vkc utor to the sharp drop in crime which occu s4vkc rred throughout the 1990s,[9] while critics have d vkc ismissed it as an u vkc nprecedented federal boondoggle.[9]The prison population has e vkc xpanded since the mid-1970s.[8]Starting s4vkc in the mid-1980s, the crack cocaine market grew rapidly before declining again a decade later. Some authors have pointed towards the link between v vkc iolent crimes a s4vkc nd crack use.[8]Legaliz s4vkc ed abortion reduced the vkc number of children born to mothers in difficult circumstances, and d vkc iffic vkc ult childhood makes child vkc ren more likely to become criminals.[10]Changing demographics of an aging population has been cited for the d vkc rop in overall crime.[11]An vkc other hypothesis suggests reduced lead exposure as the cause; Sch olar Mark A.R. Kleima s4vkc n writes: "Given the decrease s4vkc in lead exposure vkc among children since the 1980s and the estimated effects of lead on crime, vkc reduced lead expos vkc ure could easily explain a very large proportionâ€"certainly more than halfâ€"of the crime decrease of the 1994-2 s4vkc 0 vkc 04 period. A careful s vkc tatistical study relating loc al c vkc hanges in s4vkc lead exposure to local crime rates estimates t vkc he fraction of the crime s4vkc decline due to lead reduction as greater than 90 percent.[12]Crime in the Un ited States has been recorded since colonization. Cri s4vkc me rates have varie vkc d over time, with a sharp rise after 1963, reaching a broad pea vkc k between the 1970s and ea rly 1990s. Since then, crime has declined significantly in the United States,[1] and current crime rates are approxi vkc mately the same as those o vkc f the 1960s.[2] Sta vkc tistics on specific crimes are indexed in the annual Unif s4vkc orm Crime vkc Reports by the Federa s4vkc l Bureau of Investigation (FBI) and by annual National Crime Victimizat i vkc on Surveys by t s4vkc he Bureau of Justice Statistics.[3] In addition to th vkc e prim s4vkc ry Uniform Crime s4vkc Report known as C vkc rime in the United States, vkc the FBI publishes annual reports on the status of law enforcement in the United States.[2] The report's definitions of specific crimes are consid s4vkc ered standard by many vkc American law enforce m vkc ent agencies.[4] According to the FBI, index crime in the United States vkc includes violent crime and p s4vkc roperty crime.[5] Violent crime consists of four criminal offe nses: vkc murder and non-negligent manslaughter, forcible rape, robbery, and a vkc ggravated assault; property crime co vkc nsi s4vkc sts of burglary, larceny, mo vkc tor vehicle theft, and arson.[5]The Americ s4vkc an Civil War, widely known in the United State vkc s as simply the Civil War as well as other names, was a civil war f s4vkc ought from 1861 to 1865 to dete vkc rmine the survival of the Union or independence for the vkc Confederacy. Among the 34 states in January 1861, vkc sev vkc en Southern slave states vkc individually declared their s vkc ecession from the United States of America and formed the vkc Confederate States of America. The Confederacy, vkc often simply called the South, grew to include eleven sta tes, and although they s4vkc claimed thirteen states and additional western vkc territories, the Confederacy was never d vkc iplomatically recognized by any foreign vkc country. The s vkc tates that remained loyal and did not declare secession were known as the Union or the North. The war h vkc ad its origin in the factious issue of s vkc lavery, especially the extension of slavery into the western territories.[N 1] After four years vkc of combat, which had left up to 750,000 people, Union and Confederate, vkc dead and had de vkc stroyed much of the Sou s4vkc th's infrastructure, the Confederacy collapsed and slavery was abolished, beginni vkc ng Reconstruction and the process of vkc restoring national uni ty and guaranteeing civil rights to the freed slaves.In the 1860 presidential vkc election, Republicans, led by Abraham Lincoln, s4vkc supported banning slavery vkc in all the U vkc .S. territories, something the Southern states viewed as a violation of their c s4vkc onstitutional rights a vkc nd as being part of a plan to eventually abolish slavery. The vkc Republican Party, dominant in the North, secured a majority of the e vkc lectoral votes, and Lincoln was vkc elected the first Republican president, but b vkc efo vkc re his inaugura t vkc ion, seven slave states wit s4vkc h cotton-based economies formed the vkc Confederacy. The first six to secede vkc had the highe s4vkc st proportions of slaves in their populations, a total of 48.8 percent.[12] Eight remaining slave states continued to reject calls for s4vkc secession. Outgoing vkc Democratic s4vkc Pre s4vkc ident James Buchanan and the inc vkc oming r vkc ejected secession as illegal. Lincoln's March 4, 1861 inaugural addres vkc s declared his administration vkc would not initiate civil war. Speaking directly to vkc "the South ern vkc tates," he reaffirmed, "I have no purpose, directly or indirectly to vkc interfere with the vkc institution o s4vkc f slavery i s4vkc n the United States where it exists. I believ e I vkc have no lawful right to do so, and I have no inclination to do so."[13] Confederate vkc forces seized n s4vkc umerous feder s4vkc al forts within territory claimed by the Confe vkc deracy. Efforts at compromise failed, and both sides prepared for war. The vkc Confederates vkc assumed that s4vkc European countries were so dependent on "King Cotton" vkc that th ey wou vkc d intervene; none did, an vkc d none vkc recognized the new C vkc onfed vkc erate s4vkc States of A vkc merica. uzql6s4kc but beware thou 6s4vkc approach not too .


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