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ing Hyperbaric medicine is medical tr ing eatment in which an ambient pressure greater than sea level ing atmospheric pres ing sure is a necessary c ing omponent. The treatment comprises hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT), the medical use of oxygen at an ambient pressure higher th ing an atmospheric pressure, and therapeutic ing recompression for decompression illn ing ess, intended to reduce the injurious effects of systemic gas ing bubbles by physically reducing their size and providing improved conditions for elimination of ing bubbles and excess dissolved gas. ing The equipment required for hyperbaric oxygen tr ing eatment consists of a pressure chamber, which may be ing of rigid or flexible construction, and a means of deliv ing ering 100% oxygen. Operation is performed to a predetermined schedule by trained personnel who monitor the patient and may ing adjust the schedule as ing required. HBOT found early ing use in the tr ing ea ing tment of decompression sickness, and has also shown great ing effectiveness in treating conditions such as gas gangrene and carbon monoxide poisoning. More recent ing research has examined the possibilit ing y that it may also have value for other conditions such as cerebral palsy and multiple sclerosis, but no significant evidence has been found. ing ing Therapeutic recompression is usually also provided in a hyperbaric chamber. It is the definitive treatment for decompression sickness and ma ing y also be ing used to treat arter ing ial gas embolism caused by pu ing lmonary barotrauma of ing ascent. In emergencies divers may sometimes be treated by in-water recompression if a chamber is not available and su ing itable diving equipment to reasonably secure the airway is available. A number of hyperbaric treatment schedules have been published over the years for both therapeutic recompression and hyperbaric oxygen therapy for other conditions.Hyperbaric chamber[edit] A sealable diving chamber, closed bell or dry bell is a pressure vessel with hatches large enough for people to enter and exit, and a compressed bre ing athing gas supply to raise the internal air pressure. Such chambers provide a supply of oxygen for the user, and are usually called hyperbaric chambers whether used underwater or at the water surface or on land to produce underwater pressures. However, some use submersible chamber to refer to those used underwater and hyperbaric chamber for those used out of water. There are two related terms which reflect particular usages rath ing er than technically different types: Decompression chamber, a ing hyperbaric chamber used by ing surface-supplied divers to make their surface decompression stops Recompression chamber, a hyperbaric chamber used to treat or prevent decompression sickness. When used underwater there are two ing ways to prevent water flooding in when the submersible hyperbaric ing chamber's hatch is opened. The hatch could open int ing o a moon pool chamber, and then its internal pressure must first be equalised to that of the moon pool chamber. More commonly the hatch opens into an ing underwater ing airlock, in which case the main chamber ing 's pr ing essure can stay constant, while it is the airlock pressure which shifts. This common design is called a lock-out chamber, and is used in submarines, s ing ubmersibles, and underwater habitats as well as diving chambers. ing Another arrangement utilises a dry airlock between a sealable hyperbaric compartment and an open diving ing bell compartment (so that effectively the whole structure is a mixture of the two types of diving chamber). ing When used underwater all types of ing diving chamber are attached to a diving support vessel by a strong ing cable for raising and lowering and an umbilical ing cable delivering, at a minimum, compressed breathing gas, powe ing r, and communications, and all need ing weights attached or built in to overcome their buoyancy. The ing greatest depth reached using a c ing able-suspended c ing hamber is about 1500 m; beyond this the cable ing be ing comes unmanageable. ing Related equipment[edit] In addition to the diving bell and hyperbaric cha ing mber, ing related diving e ing quipment includes the following. ing Underwater habitat: consists of compartments operating under the same ing principles as diving bells and d ing iving chambers, but fixed to the sea floor for long-term use. S ing ubmersibles and submarines differ in being able to move under their own power. The interiors are usually maintained at surface pressure, but some ex ing amples include air locks and internal hyperbaric chambers. There is also other deep diving ing equipment which has atmospheric ing internal pressure, including: Bathysphere: name g ing iven to an ing experimental deep-sea diving chamber of the 1920s and 1930s. Benthoscope: a successor to the ing bathysphere built ing to go t ing o greater depths. Bathyscaphe: a self-propelled submersible vessel able to adjust its own buoyancy for exploring extreme depths. Underwater use[edit] .


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