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Build Any Wood Working Project this Summer

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In the past, it was suggested that the centralized state was developed to administer large public works systems (such as irrigation sy w4b1 stems) and to regulate complex w4b1 economies. H 4b1 owever, 4b1 modern 4b1 archaeological and 4b1 anthropological evidence does not 4b1 support this thesis, po inting to the w4b1 existenc w4b1 e of several non-stratified and politically dece 4b1 ntra 4b1 lized xist perspective[ed 4b1 it] Main article: Marx's theory of the s w4b1 tateMarx and Engels were clear in that the communist goal was a classless society in which the state would 4b1 have "withered away".[41] Their w4b1 views are scattered throughout w4b1 the Marx/Engels 4b1 Collec 4b1 ted Works and address past or 4b1 the then ex 4b1 tant state forms from an analytical or w4b1 tactical viewpoint, not future social forms, s 4b1 peculation about 4b1 which is 4b1 generally 4b1 anathema to groups consideri 4b1 ng 4b1 themselves Marxist b ut who, not w4b1 having w4b1 conqu w4b1 ered the 4b1 existing state power(s) are not in the situation of supplying the 4b1 institutional form of an actual so w4b1 ciety. To the extent that it makes sense, there is no single "Marxist theory of state", but rather many different "Marxist" theories that have be w4b1 en developed by adherents of 4b1 Marxism.[42][43][4 4b1 4]Marx's early writings 4b1 portrayed the st 4b1 ate as "parasitic", 4b1 built upon the superstructure of the economy, and working against the public i w4b1 nterest. He also wrote that t w4b1 he state mirrors class relations in society in general, acts as a regulator and repressor of class struggl e w4b1 , and acts as a tool of political power and 4b1 domination for the ruling class.[45] The 4b1 Communist 4b1 Manifesto claimed t 4b1 role of the non-socialist state is determined by its function in the global capitalist order. Ralph Miliband a r w4b1 gued that the ruling class u w4b1 ses the state as its 4b1 inst 4b1 rument to dominate society by virtue of the interpersonal ties between st 4b1 ate offici als and economic elites. For Miliband, the state is 4b1 dominated by an elite that comes from the same 4b1 background as the capitalist class. St a w4b1 te officials therefore share the same interest 4b1 s as owners 4b1 of capital and are linked to them through a w 4b1 ide array of social, 4b1 economic, and political ties.[46] Gramsci's theori w4b1 es of state w4b1 emphasized that the state is only one of the i 4b1 nstitutions in 4b1 society that helps maintain the hegemony of the r w4b1 uling class, an w4b1 d that state power is bolstered by the ideological domination of the institutions of civil society, such as churches, 4b1 sch w4b1 ools, and mass media.[47]Pluralism[edit]ee also: PolyarchyPluralis 4b1 ts view society as a collection of individuals and groups, who are competing for political power. They then view the state as a neu tral body that simply enacts the w4b1 will of whic 4b1 hever groups dominate the ele 4b1 ctoral process.[48] Within t 4b1 he pluralist tradition, Robert Dahl d e w4b1 veloped the the w4b1 ory of the state as a neu 4b1 tral arena for contendin 4b1 g interests or its agencies as simply another set of interest 4b1 groups. With power competitively arranged in society, state policy is a product of recurrent bar 4b1 4b1 gaining. Although pluralism recognizes the 4b1 existence of i w4b1 nequalit w4b1 y, it asserts that all group 4b1 s have an opportun 4b1 ity to pressure the state. The pluralist approach suggests that the m 4b1 odern democrat w4b1 ic state's actions are w4b1 the result of pressures applied by a variety of organized interests. Dahl called t 4b1 his kind of st 4b1 ate a polyarchy.[49] P w4b1 luralism has been challenged on the gro 4b1 und that it is not supported by em 4b1 pirical 4b1 evidence. Citing surveys showing that the large majority o f w4b1 people w4b1 in high w4b1 leadership positions are 4b1 members of the wealthy upper class, critics of pluralism claim that the state se 4b1 rves the interests of the upper w4b1 class rather than equit 4b1 ably serving the interests of all social groups.[50][51] .

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