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Agriculture was one of the greatest advancements in human history as it provided a foundation for the development of social hierarchies or rank societies, population growth, greater access to resources through trade, and power struggles among the elites. The big question, however, is how did the practice of agriculture originate? Hunting and gathering societies had been very successful up until the time marking the transition to agricultural and sedentary practices. Therefore, why did early modern humans decide to change from an already successful lifestyle? This is a curious matter because the beginnings of agriculture were surprisingly not that effective or successful in generating great outputs of resources as once commonly believed. Agriculture, though it was a successful development in sedentism and increased population growth, brought malnourishment to early Natufian farmers of the lack of variety in its first generations of use. Therefore, the question still remains, why did hunter and gatherers transfer to agriculture and how did the process of agriculture get initiated? There are multiple models proposing the development of agriculture which can be differentiated in a biological and environmental emphasis as well as in a cultural and sociological track. Through the research of Gordon Childe, Braidwood, Binford, Cohen, and Hayden, an analysis of the strengths and weaknesses can be made in the differentiating theories of the development of agriculture. One proposed theory for the development of agriculture was climate change. There have been several large climatic transitions between the interglacial periods. Bar Yosef researched the paleoenvironmental conditions of the Levant and suggests that about 14,000BP (before present) there were more fluctuations in precipitation than changes in temperature, ultimately responsible for the expansion of the vegetational belts. This allowed for vast latitudinal migrations, good foraging patterns, increase in population growth, and an abundance of food resources. However, between 13,000 and 12,800BP known as the Younger Dryas, conditions became colder and drier, decreasing the annual precipitations and a change in the distribution of rainfall locations (29 Oct 2009). This placed much stress on the plants and animals. According to Bar Yosef, the dry climate expanded desert conditions and caused reductions in C3 plants, used for cereal, but also the reduction of megafauna which were unable to adapt to the new environment (Bar Yosef 1998: 174). This in turn created doubts about the current nomadic organization of the foraging groups. The hunting and gathering bands soon migrated towards the Mediterranean regions to join other foraging groups to live within a close proximity and seek refuge in the small fertile areas. Childe an advocate for climate change as the effect for the development of agriculture states in his "Oasis Hypothesis" that because of the transition to dry and cold conditions, humans and animals migrated toward the river valleys for necessary water consumption. Bar Yosef states that along with "territorial restrictions, [there was] an increased motivation for intentional cultivation" (Last Hunters 70). This not only increased population size but could have also instigated sedentary life. The ideal environment that would foster the origins of agriculture would be in an area with an abundance of resources. Previously it was considered that agriculture arose in "marginal environments - areas where severe climatic change forced human populations to find new foods to eat" (Price and Gebauer 7); it is on the contrary however, that populations unable to sustain themselves would not take the risk of testing out new methods for the accumulation of food. Agriculture requires more energy expenditure and work from all inhabitants than foraging, therefore as a struggling population, this method would not have been the best option. Childe's argument takes into account the climatic and environmental pressures but it does not provide any cultural factors that might have also influenced the development of agriculture. Braidwood challenges Childe's hypothesis and suggests a more culturally driven theory for the agricultural origins.


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cheek, rather garish. “Oh!” exclaimed Millicent feverishly, instantly seized with desire for what she had not got, indifferent to what she had. Her eye ran quickly wph9rkx1

over the packages. She took one. “Now!” she exclaimed h9rkxu1 loudly, to attract attention. “Now! What’s this?â€" What’s this? What will this beauty be?”

With finicky fingers she h9rkxu1 removed the newspaper. Marjory watched her wide-eyed. Millicent was self-important. 9rkxu1 “The blue ball!” wph9rkx1 she cried in a h9rkxu1 climax of rapture. “I’ve

GOT THE BLUE BALL.” She held it gloating in the cup of kxu1 her hands. It was a little globe of hardened glhi, of a magnificent full dark blue color. She rose wph9rkx1 and went

to her father. “It was your blue ball, wasn’t it, wph9rkx1 wph9rkx1 father?” “Yes.” “And you had it when you were a little boy, and now I

have it when I’m a little girl.” “Ay,” kxu1 he replied drily. 9rkxu1 “And it’s never been broken kxu1 all those years. ” “No, not yet.” “And perhaps it never will 9rkxu1 be broken. ” To this she

received no answer. “Won’t it break?” she persisted. lwph9rku1 “Can’t you wph9rkx1 break it?” “Yes, xu1 if you hit it with a hammer, ” he said.

“Aw!” she cried. “I don’t mean that. rkxu1 I mean if you just drop it. It won’t break if you drop it, will it?”“I 9rkxu1 dare say it won’t.” “But WILL it?”

“I sh’d think not.” “Should I try?” She proceeded gingerly to let the h9rkxu1 blue ball drop, it bounced dully on the floor- covering. “Oh-h-h!” she kxu1 cried, catching it up. “I love it. ”

“Let ME drop it, ” cried Marjory, and there was a performance of admonition and demonstration from the elder sister. But Millicent must rkxu1 go further. She 9rkxu1 became excited.

“It won’t break,” she said, “even if you toss it 9rkxu1 up in the air.” She flung it up, it fell safely. But her father’s brow knitted slightly. She tossed it

wildly: it fell with h9rkxu1 a little splashing explosion: it had smashed. It had fallen on the sharp edge of 9rkxu1 the tiles that protruded under the 9rkxu1 fender.

“NOW what have you done!” cried the mother. The child lwph9rku1 stood with her lip between her teeth, a look, rkxu1 half, of pure misery and dismay,

half of satisfaction, on her pretty sharp face. “She wanted to break wph9rkx1 it, 9rkxu1 ” said the father. “No, she didn’t! What do you say that for!” said the

mother. And Millicent burst into a flood of tears. He kxu1 rose to look at the fragments that lay splashed on the floor. “You must xu1 mind the bits,” he said, “and pick ’em all up. ”

He took one of the pieces to examine it. It was fine rkxu1 and lwph9rku1 thin and hard, lined with pure xu1 silver, brilliant. He looked at it closely. So â€" 9rkxu1 this was

what it was. And thiswas the end of it. He felt the curious soft xu1 explosion of its breaking still in his ears. He threw his piece in rkxu1 the fire.

“Pick all the bits up,” he said. “Give over! give h9rkxu1 over! Don’t cry any h9rkxu1 more.” The good- natured tone of his voice quieted the child, as he

intended it should. He went away into the back kitchen to wash xu1 himself. As he was bending his head over the xu1 sink before the little mirror, lathering to shave, there .


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Marilyn Monroe (born Norma Jeane Mortenson, June 1, 1926 â€" August 5, 1962) was an American actress and model. Famous for playing "dumb blonde" characters, she became one of the most popular sex symbols of the 1950s, emblematic of the eras attitudes towards sexuality. Although she was a top-billed actress for only a decade, her films grossed $200 million by the time of her unexpected death in 1962.[1] She continues to be considered a major popular culture icon.[2] Born and raised in Los Angeles, Monroe spent most of her childhood in foster homes and an orphanage and married for the first time at the age of sixteen. While working in a factory as part of the war effort in 1944, she met a photographer and began a successful pin-up modeling career. The work led to short-lived film contracts with Twentieth Century-Fox (1946â€"47) and Columbia Pictures (1948). After a series of minor film roles, she signed a new contract with Fox in 1951. Over the next two years, she became a popular actress with roles in several comedies, including As Young as You Feel and Monkey Business, and in the dramas Clash by Night and Dont Bother to Knock. Monroe faced a scandal when it was revealed that she had posed for nude photos before becoming a star, but rather than damaging her career, the story increased interest in her films.
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